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I Want to Install Linux FAQ

linux
installation

#1

I Want to Install Linux How Do I –

Hold on there, wait just a minute!

This here is a friendly guide to getting your question answered in the quickest possible fashion, while avoiding the potential pitfalls and speed bumps along the way.

Well, I kind of lied there. If you’re installing Linux, there are going to be speed bumps along the way. But this will hopefully alleviate some of that.

First

Why do you want to do what you’re doing? Are you looking to install Linux because it’s cool? Great! Have you tried running it in a virtual machine, first? I ask because this is a great way to get exposure to the installation process, graphical interface, and overall user experience before throwing it on your hard drive. Checkout VirtualBox or VMware Player.

Now, ask yourself: “Why do I want to install Linux?”

It looks cool

If the answer is that it looks cool, that’s great. Linux does look cool, and it is cool! Not only that, but when you use Linux, your cool points bump up instantly by 20, 50 if you’re rocking a core distribution like Debian or Slackware. Pro tip, don’t use Slackware :wink:

Some great resources for basic installation instructions:

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Installation_guide

https://www.debian.org/releases/stretch/amd64/

https://docs.fedoraproject.org/en-US/fedora/f28/install-guide/install/Preparing_for_Installation/

“Do I have to read through the whole thing?”

No, I’ll admit I rarely read documentation cover to cover when I’m learning something. I dive in, hit a road block, search some forums, and then refer to the docs. If I’m stuck for a while I’ll start at the beginning. Really, you should reference those before starting and use them as a guide during the installation process. Truth is, if you’ve ever had to install a Windows operating system onto a hard drive or reinstall OS X, the process is very similar. The partition names are different, and the layout might confuse you, but generally the point and click process is the same.

IF YOU’RE USING ARCH

Yes, read the Installation Guide before and during installation. The installation process for Arch Linux is very manual and tedious. Some say that you will learn a lot about Linux during the installation process. I disagree, I think you learn a bit about installing Arch while installing Arch. I’ve learned more about Linux using Ubuntu and Fedora than I have Arch. But, I also learn a bit differently than others.

Once you’re done with your installation, you can find some other things to do to start exploring your new operating system:

Note, these are just suggestions. I never recommend blindly copying commands, scripts, or code and running them on your computer. Definitely do a little digging to see what something does before executing it as root or sudo.

Linux is Secure

Eh… Kind of? Security through obscurity doesn’t get you far these days. Out of the box, Linux operating systems do a lot of things really well. Sometimes, though, there is a lack of understanding as to what makes something secure.

Firewalls

Debian and Ubuntu have UFW out of the box (generally). Sometimes, it is disabled by default. I recommend referring to the man page about this one, because some of the configurations online leave little explanation and have a lot of guesswork.

Before we go any further, man something is a great way to learn more about what you’re doing. Whether it’s apt, dnf, ufw, firewalld, go – doesn’t matter. Manual pages are a vastly underutilized resource in the Linux/Unix world. If you’ve ever used Get-Help in PowerShell, it’s the same concept. I’ve heard criticism about man pages, that they’re poorly written and lack examples. I used to agree, but lately I’m starting to become a firm believer in that this is by design. You’re supposed to hack at a command/script, learn by failing, etc. That’s how all the previous greats did it before you.

Anyway, if you want to manage the traffic going in and out of your operating system, I’d get familiar with these tools and get to cracking on isolating your system from unwanted connections. This will likely involve a lot of trial and error, and a lot of “Web Page Not Found” messages when you try to hit up Level1 in the future. But, if you want to secure a system, start with the network. Head to your library and checkout TCP/IP Illustrated or DNS and Bind to dig into some networking material.

Desktop

Your Linux operating system’s desktop is written in a modern software that is vulnerable like everything else in this beautiful world. Remember when I said earlier you shouldn’t just copy and paste stuff in your terminal? No? YOU JUST SKIMMED THIS?! Go back and read, please. You’re back? Great.

Don’t blindly run commands, scripts, or code if you don’t know what it is. I don’t care how many stars on GitHub it has or who told you to use it. No, you don’t have to learn programming to use Linux (but you will, ohhh you will. We all do. We all float down here, Billy).

Your web browser is the single most dangerous utility you have on your system right now. Very few attacks come through the network. You will receive most of your insecure nonsense through e-mail attachments, downloads, and malicious links in your browser.

uBlock Origin, Ghostery, and a sort of JavaScript blocker (that you can easily disable) are three things that can make you 1,000x times more secure than you are now, regardless of what operating system you’re using.

Learn to read domain names of websites and e-mail addresses. @microsoft.com and @rnicrosoft.com are the exact same thing, everyone will tell you, especially when you’re just glancing through things. That kind of mistake owns people every. Single. Day. If you’re moving to Linux because you think it’s secure, the system itself isn’t going to make you secure, you have to make yourself secure.

Just to prove that the system doesn’t matter, read this:

Better yet, subscribe to Trend Micro’s blog, too. “Linux doesn’t get viruses” goes out the Windows (lel) when things like this start happening.

Read domain names, twice. Hover the link to see where it takes you. Don’t run source code or make unless you know exactly what you’re running. Learn to use a local firewall to manage your system’s traffic. This covers a fraction of a percent as to what you’re going to need to concern yourself with, security wise. The most important thing to take note of is that Linux is not secure out of the box. Like anything, it requires a bit of work to lock down.

Linux is Private

“Wait a minute, you just covered this. What’s the difference in privacy and security?”

Great question. I attended a seminar a few years ago, and an English gentlemen went over this same subject. I’ll update this thread with his name but as of now I can’t recall.

For this discussion:

  1. Security - No anonymity, but my actions and property are hidden.
  2. Privacy - Anonymous, but my actions and property are visible.

Having security would be someone or something knowing that your name is Mickey Mouse, you live at 666 Walt Disney, and you work at Disney World. But, your web traffic, hard disks, and business transactions are hidden and encrypted.

Having privacy would be someone or something not having a clue who you are, due to a disguise or a mask, but they see that you’re protesting or performing criminal mischief. They have no way of knowing that it’s you, however.

ExpressVPN and Private Internet Access are two great Virtual Private Network subscriptions that will secure your location and web traffic. I cannot state this enough: Always evaluate the terms and conditions of the providers. Always. Today they don’t keep logs, tomorrow they do. Just something to consider. You should receive regular e-mails if you subscribe to a provider anytime the T&C are updated.

Digital Ocean and Linode have great guides for the DIY aspect of this.

Understanding Encryption is both a tall task and one that’s probably required if you want to continue down the privacy rabbit hole. My suggestion would be to get a good book, look at LUKS, VeraCrypt, DM-Crypt, and other home brews that are out there. Most Linux distributions will allow you to encrypt the /home partition and the hard drive during the installation process.

Be very careful when doing this and understand what you’re doing.

This scratches the surface of privacy related concerns, but again, Linux does not provide much privacy out of the box.

Cool Tech (ZFS, BTRFS, Hacking, Networking)

If you want to explore the vast array of kick ass technology Linux operating systems, file systems, and network stacks bring to the table, ask yourself: Has this been answered before?

Chances are, yes.

https://ubuntuforums.org/

https://bbs.archlinux.org/

https://discord.me/page/discord-linux

https://forum.level1techs.com

Even Level1Techs has a little search icon in the top corner. You can find a ton of answers on the sites listed above.

Linux is Good for Software Development

Ah, a master of the arts, yeah? Excellent. Developing software on Linux offers several benefits. One, you can mostly guarantee that your software is going to ship and run on a Linux server somewhere. You can get close to emulating that experience by using a Linux operating system to test that software.

A few things to consider – All of the tools are available on Windows or OS X, in one respect or another. Also, because it works on Fedora 28 or Ubuntu 18.04.1 doesn’t necessarily mean it’ll run flawlessly on your CentOS 7.3 or Ubuntu 16.04.4 box. Last, you can definitely emulate this experience on other operating systems, while serving your “off duty” needs such as gaming and mainstream software compatibility without running a full blown Linux operating system bare metal.

Now that that is gone, I definitely recommend running a Linux system if you are interested in software, security, or networking in a high caliber. You will have a rich experience that will grow with you over time as you evolve your skillset. Even if you just keep a VM on the side or a spare laptop, that’s still enough to warrant your attention every once in a while. If it’s your main system for daily use, push yourself and never get content with what you’re doing. I used Linux for almost a decade before I decided to actually build my own tools and engineer solutions to nagging problems. I shouldn’t have waited that long before I started doing real work and contributing.

My Hardware Doesn’t Work!

Yikes, I’ve been there. First thing you need to do is disable Secure Boot and try the installation medium again.

If that doesn’t work, try using these tools:

https://rufus.akeo.ie/

There are Mac and Windows options, and they both provide an intuitive graphical interface that will get you going. If you’re able to install or get to the installation screen, but your screen goes black – You might have an nVidia problem.

Press ‘E’ or ‘Tab’, for UEFI and MBR respectively, at the “Install Ubuntu/Fedora/Whatever” screen. Go to the line that starts with “linux” and use the arrow keys to navigate to the end of quiet splash add a space after the word “splash” and type nomodeset

Press enter, Control + X, or F10 to continue through the installation. You may have to do this once again after you do the installation until nVidia drivers are installed.

https://linuxconfig.org/how-to-install-the-nvidia-drivers-on-ubuntu-18-04-bionic-beaver-linux

https://wiki.debian.org/NvidiaGraphicsDrivers

That should suffice for getting something going. If you get an error saying / not found or that there is a GRUB error, chances are you partitioned GRUB to the boot media or you made the partitions incorrectly. Refer to the guide above for the recommended partitions.

Hopefully this can turn into an organic, living document and grow as the needs of the community change.


I am new to linux.. help?
Wanting to run all windows applications, games and software on linux
Easy alternatives to windows
#2

Pinned for a week.


#3

#4

TL;DR?

/s it seems like a good starting point for new friends.


#5

Use Linux if you want to use Linux but only use Linux if you want to use Linux :grin:


#6

Honestly, this is an AWESOME post @anon37156419! I honestly could have used this the first week I started my Linux journey almost two years ago. Great post.


#7

I am getting mixed messages here :smile: .

Jokes aside I hope this helps people who want to try linux for themselves.

Imagine if all the threads about linux were written in this friendly manner…

This is exactly how I started with linux. Really good way because if you break something or you mess up big time you can easily revert to a previous snapshot (if you made one) or just make a new virtual machine.


#8

Hah, I got started on Slackware, wanted to use ICMP nuke to mess with people on IRC and it didn’t work on windows 95, needed raw sockets on linux.


#9

VMs are a heck of a drug. :male_detective: Hey kid, wanna buy some Virtual Machines?


#10

Good information. Too many people think they are secure just because they use anti-virus software or installed Linux. Security is an ongoing battle.

Remember, always use protection!

ethernetsafety


#11

permanent category pin unless someone undoes this


#12

there are many methods and schemes you can use for encryption and securing your system, it depends on how thorough you want to be good encryption is only as good as your encryption key.
installing linux is not that difficult , many distros are dead easy to install many require you to pay attention to the install process and a few can be difficult unless you are a seasoned linux veteran.
choosing a distro can be more daunting than the actual installation itself.
distrowatch can be a great resource of information about the linux distros but im sure there are a lot of different sites out there to help you choose.


#13

The most difficult part of using Linux is getting it installed, particularly if one wants to use Linux and Windows on the same machine. Unless one is intimately familiar with partitioning disks, do yourself a favor and install Linux on an old, second hand machine, all by itself.

Hardware compatibility is generally not an issue, with the possible exception of of some printers, some WiFi cards and brand new, bleeding edge hardware. Most Linux distributions are provided in a live format, so that hardware compatibility can easily be checked. Just boot from the Linux ISO file, preferably from a USB drive (for speed/responsiveness), to see if your hardware is recognized.

IMHO, distributions such as Arch, Gentoo and Linux From Scratch should initially be avoided, not because they are too difficult, but because one will be asked to make several decisions about which software components to install, for which a new user will have no frame of reference.

There are literally hundreds of different Linux distributions, but don’t obsess about finding the right distribution for you. As you gain experience, your tastes will invariably change. Look at Ditstowatch dot com to see a indication of the relative popularity of the various distributions (they must be popular for a reason, eh?) and then look for installation/review vids of the top ten, or top twenty distributions on the YouTube. Find two, or three that appeal to you, download the ISO files and boot them to see what you think. Again, don’t obsess. If you find one that looks interesting, install it and unless you have a problem out of the box, take the thirty day challenge. Then, install VirtualBox and learn how to try new Linux distributions in a virtual machine. If/when you find a new distribution that is more appealing, install it and repeat the process. Some people seemingly change distributions as often as they change their underwear which may seem extreme, but it is a sure way to determine which Desktop Environment is right for you and your hardware.

The Desktop Environment is the most distinguishing feature of any distribution. Most distributions will have one flagship Desktop Environment, such as KDE, GNOME, Cinnamon, Budgie, Mate, Xfce, or LXQT which will frequently be customized for look and feel. They will generally also offer two, or three other Desktop Environments which may have lower resource requirements (CPU power and RAM capacity) and may resemble the flagship desktop, but be more suitable for older, less powerful machines. Hint: the first three DEs mentioned above generally require more hardware resources than the last four.

Most importantly, have fun. If you aren’t breaking things, you’re probably not learning anything. The second most important thing is to learn how to ask quality questions (which is generally not an issue for folks on this forum).


#14

I wanted to add my two cents about the security bit.

I’m GLAD you said that just because it’s Linux, doesn’t mean you won’t ever get viruses. DAMN that pisses me off whenever I see a YouTuber say this shit. EVEN THE POPULAR LINUX PEOPLE are guilty of saying it. Or they say you don’t need a firewall, or some other bullshit of the like. It makes me want to scratch their eyes out.

Because I’ve read, seen, and heard of MANY dangerous Linux viruses, or malware, or ransomware happen all the time. Most hospitals in my state have switched to Linux, and because their IT department didn’t take the time to investigate security, they end up paying the price later cause some dolt installed something they shouldn’t have, or they didn’t at the very least set up some sort of firewall.

Being on Linux doesn’t mean you won’t get viruses, it just means your LESS vulnerable to them. But as the popularity of Linux continues to rise, the more apt people will be to write viruses or malware for it!

/endrant


#15

you both are correct in this but what a noob doesn’t understand is that your linux is only as secure as you make it.
as i stated in an earlier post you have so many ways to format your partitions and harden your distro that it can be difficult to choose from.
Distros have different install methods also and that can throw a monkey wrench into the mixer too.
learning to set up and edit your partitions is a super plus to know.
while you can find install videos and instructions on you tube there is a chance they may not be correct for each user.
and many distros use automated setups also and will use a default format unless changed
you can use the default format if you want because its easier but you are better off switching to a format of your choice
I will however recommend against choosing ntfs or fat file systems!

any of my clients wishing to learn linux first get a crash course in partitioning and disk cloning. then they install the distro under guidance.

after learning the install they learn in this order
backup, software install, organisation and finally cli (if they wish).
If you are dealing with sensitive information and or have privacy concerns a firewall is a must have regardless of the nag screen messages you get from them
a firewall is recommended anyway but that is the choice of the user.
the actual istallation of linux is easy but you have to read carefully and choose carefully what you want your system to do and install.

@BarkingMad hit the nail on the head with learning from breaking things :rofl:
had a fit with phpbb forum setup the first time! but learned a lot from it that ill never forget