The Ultimute Linux Tutorial part 2

A good preface as suggested by @wendell. Linux is not your grandfathers operating system. it is different in many ways and will have a much steeper learning curve. its like a elephant -- hardest part is trying to figure out where to take the first bite. Have fun continuing to grow out your next beard.

Lets move onto some more advanced stuff. A warning is in order though. from here on out you can run the risk of bricking your linux install if you are not careful in taking the proper steps to ensure that your install lasts. Triple check your commands before you run them especially when you run them as root. I would recommend using a VM if you feel unsafe from here as a data loss is no joke.

The first thing we are going to learn is permissions. if you have ever run " ls -l " then you have noticed alot more verbose information being displayed. Some of this information is the permissions information

drwxrwxr-x root wheel 4096 Mar 9 14:04 Folder

the first character is the type bit. Lets the system know what type of file it is. In this case the type bit is " d " for directory. this will be " - " for regular files. the next 9 characters are the permission octals. After that is the owner and group permissions. Those let the system know who can and cant access the files and how the can access the files. the permission octals are spilt into 3 sections of 3. the first section is owner permissions, the second section is for group permissions, and the last section is the world permissions. world permissions apply to anyone not specified by owner and group permissions. We will cover users and groups when we make our way into user management

The octal bits are easy once you know what they are.

7 - read, write, and execute
6 - read, and write
5 - read on execute
4 - read
3 - write and execute
2 - write
1 - execute
0 - no access

Octal bits are just added together to get the permissions you want. 4 + 2 = 6 so users would only be allowed to read and write to files but not able to execute them. there are special cases as always though. access to folders can be limited by removing the execute bit. this will prevent users from being able to cd into the folder.

now we can move onto the fun stuff like commands.

chmod 644 foo.txt - sets foo.txt to read and write by owner and readable for everyone else
chmod +x program.bin - allows executing program.bin
chmod -x program.bin - removes the ability to run program.bin
chmod +r -R foo - recursively adds read permissions to the folder foo

Some great sites and such you should check out




Do not consider these tutorials complete. i plan on updating them to fix errors and to add anything i might have missed in the past. Also @MichaelLindman had a great idea to tag these posts under #ult so it will be easier for other to find

feel free to post if you have any questions, comments, etc. will be glad to help


Great work as always :thumbsup:


My grandfather's OS was one of several flavors of Unix at any given time. I don't see what you're getting at here (unless you mean that linux distros generally have much worse documentation than any similar environment.)

fun intro though.


meant grandfathers OS as in linux is very different from something like windows

That's the joke.

Also, windows is both unique and relatively new. Bad analogy if you ask me.

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fine then


But I'm the one being a pedantic shithead, not you. If anything i'm the Sheldon.

bad reaction gif if you ask me

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Good write up/guide/thing


Windows as we know it now, Windows NT (because that's still what it is, internal designation is exactly that), is older than GNU/Linux, as GNU/Linux was created in 1991, for the first time for 32-bit 80386 arch, and the current Windows NT is based off of OS/2, which was a so-called "joint development" between IBM and MS (it was an IBM development of an existing IBM product in a certain development at the request of Microsoft), which MS then used to push IBM out of the software market, in pretty much the same way as Google is now pushing Microsoft out of the software market, by offering more hardware compatibility at the expense of software quality (which is much easier of course; since software quality and Microsoft etc lol..., whereas Google uses a Linux base, which is a very high quality base that Google can mess up to a very large extent before it becomes apparent, but it's the same idea: cut corners and be on every single device, cheap clone hardware first, and conquer the market that way.)

As soon as GNU/Linux was created, with a lot of the design choices OS/2 also had wanted to make, IBM lost interest in OS/2 development, and basically, that's when Microsoft used the OS/2 based to develop NT/4, which was the first Windows to nut just be a shell on DOS. IBM had been offering full Windows and DOS virtualization and containerization on OS/2 by then as standard features in OS/2 Warp, features that were not developed any further by Microsoft.
So basically, Microsoft Windows as we know it know, is based off of a software development branch that was abandoned by the driving development force behind it at about the same time as GNU/Linux was invented.

In 1996-1997, Belgian and Dutch researchers did extensive logic analysis on Intel CPU's while running Windows NT, and found out that there were the so-called "NSA keys" hidden inside of the software. Microsoft turned out not to even know that these were there, they were 1:1 taken over from pre-existing IBM code base from the late 1980's, so introduced twenty years earlier, probably around the time that Iran went with IBM OS/2 for its entire banking software. Microsoft never fixed these keys, instead Intel and AMD encrypted the microcode in their CPU's so that logical analysis on the CPU's would be impossible.

So basically, Windows is based off of a codebase of which main development ended at about the time when GNU/Linux was created. GNU/Linux is now 26 years old, and has had basically 4 major technical evolutions in that time. Windows hasn't. GNU/Linux has become platform independent, capable of all the known features of any monolithic operating system in existence, plus some features beyond that, thanks to the open development model. Windows on the contrary has had two technical evolutions: at first it was just a GUI shell over MS-DOS, which was bought by Microsoft from a small company in Seattle for 25kUSD in the 1970's, and from NT/4, it was based off of the abandoned OS/2 code base... so nothing unique about it because it was all recycling from previous products, and nothing modern about it, because the main development of it was ceased just after GNU/Linux was created, almost thirty years ago. Yes there was further development of some subsystems and mainly of GUI's and such, but that would be like saying that for instance Gnome/gtk development accounts for GNU/Linux development, and that is not the case at all. The first important evolution in Windows operating system in the last 30 years has happened just last year, with the introduction by Canonical of bash, one of the oldest features in *nix OS's at this point.

So it's safe to say that Windows is a recycling job on an ancient OS, and GNU/Linux is the most modern OS in existence today. Windows at this point does not even have a modern filesystem, does not even have a full containerization-based security concept based on native kernel functionality, etc... it is neither new nor unique, it is the exact opposite.


It was clearly a joke. I didn't need a history lesson.


as in unix and punchcards make it look fresh faced, and unique in the sense that pretty much every OS in current use is unix based/like, except for windows.

Thanks a ton for sucking the fun out of everything though. We all appreciate it.

inb4 this gets Zoltansplained too <3

Everyone reads this forum, not all of them are in on your "jokes". Please be mindful of that...


imo these threads should be kept clean of memes and such, cause i can go to the Lounge for that.


What I was giving actual input, unlike someone else who clearly was trolling.

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Don't worry about it, the memes per se were not the problem here lol
Now enough with the chit chat, thread should go back on track...