would I be able to put a caviar blue 7200 rpm drive, a Kingston hyper x 3k ssd, a gtx 780, and an h80i water cooler. Would this all fit in the bitfenix prodigy. I would be willing to sacrifice the optical drive.
it will fit fine no problem. but you have to go intel, i would recommend a hasswell i5-4670K or an i7-4770K with Asus maximus V impact, or asus Z87i-pro board.
As MisteryAngel said, all of those parts should fit no problem, just pay attention to the vertical height of the video card. I'm also using a BitFenix Prodigy and a GTX 780 so make sure that you remove the top hard drive cage to make room for the card and if you're using an optical drive, make sure that the cooler on the card is not too tall or you will have to remove the optical drive to fit it in. For reference, I'm using the Baseline EVGA GTX 780 with the ACX cooler, and it fits with an optical drive installed (card height is about 4.4 inches, anything more than that is probably too much). However, I did have to remove the optical drive cage before installing the card, as there wasn't quite enough room to plug in the card with it installed. I reinstalled the drive cage after plugging in the card and I've had no issues with it yet.
On an unrelated note, route all your power cables before fully installing the PSU as the bay is only about 18cm deep, and there isn't enough room to to it after installing the PSU. In fact, you should probably install the PSU first as you will probably need the extra room to get everything prepared.