Basic word compression algorithm

I am not the best at maths but would like help in developing or learning a preexisting word compression algorithm (if thats what its even called). I would like to be able to make 400 words into about 200 characters with maths that you can do on paper or with a calculator. Like for example taking a speech or essay and “compressing it down”. I would also need to be able to decompress the speech from the 200 compressed back into 400 words. I’m sorry if this does not make much sense but it is for a very niche use case and is very hard to explain.

this is a great project to improve on those fields.

I think compression is the correct terminology, you are reducing the amount of space an output uses on a given input.
The correct term in this case would be lossless compression, as the input can be reconstructed 100% (not like image compression does by introducing quality loss).

Using readable characters makes this good for a learning!
I recommend looking at Huffman coding - wikipedia definitely better defines what it does (and how) than I ever could.

A little off topic, but still related: The Information: A History, A Theory, A Flood

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thanks some much, will look in to this to see if it solves my problem.

Well, PNG is lossless compression.

Since language has repeating patterns, maybe look into this:

Tom Scott video that gives an introduction:

LZW is also taught early on at universities.