Adding More RAM to a System

I built my system about 9 months ago with two 4GB sticks of Corsair Vengeance RAM. They are running currently at 1600MHz and have timings of 9-9-9-24. I want to add another 16GB(two 8GB sticks) of the same line of RAM from Corsair but the timings are different, 10-10-10-27. I want to know if it is possible to have two different timed sets of RAM in one system.

My Current Rig: 

AMD fx8350(running at 4.6 GHz at 1.4 V) 

Asus M5A99FX PRO R2.0 

8GB 1600 MHz Corsair Vengence 

Asus Geforce GTX 770 2GB DC2 

Corsair TX750M 

1 TB WD Blue HDD 

Corsair H100i

yes it is possible but you might run into some issues with stability if you don't take proper steps to ensure stability.

if you place the 2 4 gig sticks in the same channel and the 2 8 gig sticks in the same channel it should be fine.  and if you loosen the timing of the 4 gig sticks to match the 8 gig sticks it would be even better. depending on your motherboard this should not be hard to accomplish.

More than 8 gigs of DDR3 1600 Mhz is overkill if main PC usage is for gaming and web surfing ...

as for your question ... someone that knows will have to answer.

Shouldn't be a problem. Just match your dimms in the corresponding channels. Likely you would from left to right on your mobo have 

8GB in slot 0  --> 4GB in slot 1  --> 8GB in slot2 --> 4GB in slot3

This is how most boards configure the channels this should ensure that the Double Data read is able to work correctly.

Yes it'll work, but likely your dimms running at CL9 latency will run at a slower CL10.  Since this is only DDR3-1600, compatibility shouldn't be a huge problem.