VPN and Internet Rights in Foreign Countries

I know this topic could be answered in another forum section, but I think this could make for a good discussion in Inbox.exe or The Tek.

This summer I'm going to be in China for two weeks. Will using a VPN such as privateinternetaccess.com, which Logan has recommended previously, work to evade the internet firewalls in China? If so, does the Chinese government technically have the right to arrest me, a 16 year old US citizen, trying to check my social media?

Taking this a step further: what internet rights does one maintain when traveling internationally? What internet rights is that traveler obligated to follow when in a foreign country (if any)?