Setting up a DNS record as a first timer

I just hosted a WordPress site on DigitalOcean and all I had, initially, was an IP address which I used to enter into the URL bar to view and administer my WordPress site.
Things, however, got ugly soon as I bought a domain name from GoDaddy and realized I know nothing about how it works. Several google searches later, I am here hoping the community might point me in the right direction. So here's my situation.

  1. When I enter the domain name into the address bar my website opens up just fine.
  2. When I click on a post, the URL stays the same as before instead of changing to mydomain.com/the_permalink
  3. Whenever I try to click on the customize option or edit post option (when visiting mydomain.com), it just doesn't load up. However, it works just fine when doing the same thing via entering the ip address into the address bar
  4. Last but not the least, setting up Website URL on WordPress to mydomain.com just breaks the website in a weird way and makes me restore a previous snapshot of the entire system.

I know, it's too lengthy and probably too silly, but any help would be much appreciated, if you do go through this excruciatingly long post.

I'm not familiar enough with wordpress to know for sure but it sounds to me like its not a DNS issue. If your page loads when you type in your domain, all should be right with the world. It sounds to me like something is wrong in wordpress settings itself or the apache setup.

I did find this, which sounds like its the right info you need maybe.
https://www.godaddy.com/help/fixing-permalink-issues-with-wordpress-6313

I agree with Adubs, maybe this: https://codex.wordpress.org/Changing_The_Site_URL

Check out Wendels video's on the linux channel. It not exactly the same but he does explain it very well. Both cover setting up DNS with cpanel but the basics are there to set up the DNS record.

There is an older video using .Tech domain which is what I used. I have not used Godaddy myself but the basics should translate.

These gave my the basic's to get a Digital Ocean Nextcloud server running.