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Networking in nomansland

I am moving to nomansland.
I am thinking about remote access to a server room where would be LTE connection.
Server’s shed (is about 80m from the house):
There are 2LTE providers

  1. 300GiB limited 30gbs /2gbs throttling to 256k after 300GiB traffic on LTE800Mhz and 2600MHz with mediocre signal
  2. unlimited no-throttling LTE1800MHz with very weak signal.
    So my first step is to buy a 2x MIMO.
    My next step is buy a dual sim LTE modem with failover I found only this
    http://www.3grouterstore.co.uk/3G/Proroute-GEM420-Dual-SIM-4G-Router.html
    I would prefer at least 4 gigaports to connect server with mini PCs.

Server will be multipurpose :
1| securitycams (Wifi/Lan? is best? area is 9000m2 30m*300m),
2|some light virtualization for 1-2 users,
3|mediaserver for 1-10 people,
4|home automation for 1 (up to 4) houses and gardens
5|remote gaming rig
I know is too much but I want it :slight_smile:

In the shed will be other connected LANs of windows PC, and some mining Asics so those will be working via Wifi via Mikrotik router from provider on low 2mbit conn

Longest distance is 300 m (main gate) so I am thinking in cat7 cabling but cat6 network.
For at least one year there will be no houses, I will be gatekeeper, so I got a 15m2 tiny little house to live. So I will be using some 4k capable microPC (raspberry,arduino etc) a remote client with a wall mounted 4k IPC monitor/smart tv

All this on low budget DIY solution.
I was thinking of AMD threadripper virtualization server Linux with RX580 8GB passthrough and 128GB RAM?
Any tips on connection,router, cams,server,miniPC are welcomed

Not sure if this would work for you: https://mikrotik.com/product/RBSXTLTE3-7

no such thing as cat7, cat6a is the highest that actual standards go (it gives you 10gbps at 100m length).

you might end up looking how to connect stuff at distances >100m on your property or between buildings, here’s stuff to look into:

  • fiber: there’s an online store called fs.com with a huge and confusing inventory, out of everything they sell, you might be interested in these: https://imgur.com/a/GZRAl
  • ethernet: 200m @ 2.5Gbps using mikrotik s+rj10
  • wireless: least amount of throughput, but easy, for point-to-point between buildings have a look at this mikrotik or this ubiquiti ; same companies also sell sector stuff if you want to do a point to multipoint for some reason.

There is.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO/IEC_11801#CAT7

And you can buy it on amazon too. They are STP strandred.

This is probably a stupid question but…

Why?

Going by what is says on Wikipedia, I do not see the benefit in running Cat 7 cable. It is likely to cost a lot more for the same speeds.

I can’t help but feel the Cat 7 cables on Amazon are in fact Cat 6a, and they’re using horrible marketing techniques.

However, in 2008 Category 6A was ratified and allows 10 Gbit/s Ethernet while still using the traditional 8P8C connector. Therefore, all manufacturers of active equipment and network cards have chosen to support the 8P8C for their 10 Gigabit Ethernet products on [2] copper and not the GG45, ARJ45, or TERA. These products therefore require a Class EA channel (Cat 6A). As of 2017 there is no equipment that has connectors supporting the Class F (Category 7) channel.

Category 7 is not recognized by the TIA/EIA.

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Correct, its also a pain to terminate because each pair is shielded in aluminum foil.

CAT6a Plenum rated is the way to go for your runs, with the CAT6a stranded for your computers and servers.

I currently have an 500/100Mbs net on optic, but live in very small apartment and paying a hefty rent in commercial for all my stuff
So I exchanged it for :
+air quality
+life change
+it was dirt cheap
+don’t like crowds
+lower living costs
+farming/garden
+own lake
+future small community

-crappy net for an IT guy is a big minus but …
-is a green field project but has developer for 4 houses now

Cat6a UTP 500m is 195eur
Cat6a FTP 500m is 239eur
Cat7 500m is 650eur,
I am convicible if it is about money.
thx.

Ok wait I’m thinking of Korea and thats obviously not where you are.

Or at least I hope?

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If I understand this correctly, You have a shed with computers, which is disconnected from your living space.

What’s preventing a fiber install between the two?
prepping the internal network to be fiber isn’t a bad idea. With the right Single Mode setup, you could run connections from one end of the property to the other with zero signal issues.

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No, I am Slovakia based.

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Only hardware issues and little to no knowledge about fiber installation.
I have 2SFP on server, but is there any mini pc with SFP and not cost a fortune?
I can’t afford a (m)ATX tower in my room.

Thank fucking god.

internal to the shed I would suggest getting regular gigabit. For long range stuff. You can get PCIE cards on the cheap (at least in the US).
as for fiber, I would try to find a cable that’s long enough to do any really long distance runs, and bury a conduit. (which will come in handy later on if you ever expand.

There’s a lot of switches and routers and cards that end up including e.g. a number of gigabit ports and a couple of 10Gbps SFP+

You should seriously consider adopting fiber between your buildings, between your dc-in-a-shed and your home, and within your dc-in-a-shed.

Fiber market traditionally had more money / customer than ethernet so it’s natural there’s a million standards out there and acronyms, something for everyone’s money. This is the reason it’s confusing.

Main difference is, you don’t make your own cables… You measure, order to length+a bit extra, you install and keep it there.

Here’s everything you need to know about fiber to be able to use it and get cheap cheap 10Gbps.

TODO(…): come back and format this

Fiber itself

SMF/MMF:

you have several single mode types of fiber and several more multimode types of fiber. Single mode fiber is more precise, requires more manufacturing capability and provides for lower loss over distance. Multimode is single modes dirty fat cheap drunk cousin always there for Christmas, except it’s not much cheaper these days. (Perpetual economic crisis and all) When people say how you can keep reusing the same fiber with 1Gbps today 10Gbps tomorrow, and 100Gbps or terabit in the future, they typically mean SMF/single mode. There’s multiple kinds of MMF, the standard gets updated every 5 years or so to support new speeds. That’s what you want to use SMF pretty much always. SMF requires shorter wavelength 1200-1600nm, most gear uses 1310nm or 1490nm) ,whereas MMF operates at about 800 or so… and can even work with fancy LEDs at short distances might be slightly cheaper than cheap lasers up to 40Gbps. MMF is only useful at short distances, and only if you have access to second hand high end surplus hardware, because 40/100Gbps modules (aka. optics) for short up to 150m fiber are dirt cheap compared to SMF. Let’s not mention MMF going forward, there’s pcie limitations you’ll run into at home when you try running 40Gbps or faster. In a couple of years it’ll all be cheap anyway.

There’s also some kinds of fiber that allows you to tie your shoelaces with it and after that it’ll still be able to do 100Gbps (or 3.2Tbps if you have a 320way DWDM at each end). Most fiber is not that durable, people generally use G.652 - it’s the cat6 of fiber, the thing everyone gets (and yes it can do terabits), and it can be fairly rugged. Actual cable usually has kevlar and aramid wrapping, and in some cases thin but corrugated steel (like the one I linked to before) and is then encased in plastic. In general if you go gardening and stick a shovel in it by accident, it’ll probably be fine.

You generally want a pair of fibers or a single “duplex” cable. There’s cables with more strands but that’s not for home use, you can’t really separate strands in the field without having proper equipment and practice.
There’s bidirectional equipment using one frequency on one direction, and another frequency for return, duplex fiber is cheaper typically.

You don’t self terminate fiber either at home, that also requires equipment (300-1000) and practice.

Fusing broken fiber properly, requires something like and alignment welder machine, cheap chinese ones are like $2000, at that price they’re causing quite a stir in the market cause that’s cheap for these folks… Not something you want to do at home/office/yourself.

Polish

(as in the grind at the end of the cable, not the people)

APC/UPC:

mumble-mumble… Something about light bouncing of the end of the cable, I don’t get this myself, apparently catv industry uses APC where the end of the cable is polished at an angle, computer people use UPC where the end is 90° flat perpendicular to cable axis. UPC is what you need.

Connectors

LC/SC/…

There’s many standards, in general some are bigger, some are smaller important thing is they attach to modules that require a compatible kind, a cable doesn’t have to have the same connector on both ends, but usually it just does.
LC are the smallest afaik, that’s the kind of plug you find on most computer gear.
GPON that uses different wavelengths for send and receive uses an SC connector that’s slightly bigger and more rugged, all others are less popular.

Modules and speeds:

SFP/SFP+/QSFP+/QSFP28

This is what connects that LC connector/SC connector/RJ45 connector to a switch, it a a small box with some electronics and a laser of a certain wavelength that plugs into your switch or computer. For home use you probably care about SFP for 1Gbps and SFP+ for 10Gbps. SFP+ slots in switches will usually work with SFP modules too. Although SFP+ modules typically won’t negotiate 1Gbps with an SFP module at the other end.

Q variants use four “lanes”, QSFP+ gets you 40Gbps, QSFP28 gets you ~100Gbps (apparently 28Gbps goes after 10Gbps … no idea what they’re thinking there). … 40Gbps is like $300 (or can be had for $50 for MMF up to 150m). The kicker is that while 10Gbps is something you could saturate today with a remote SSD, utilizing 40Gbps is much harder, your server software would need to be able to process IP data at 40Gbps. Anyone can write code to do that for a specific application, but most people don’t and that code is not there today, it’s something nobody had to think about before. It’s also 4 lanes worth of PCIe 3.0 bandwidth, you’d need to canibalize the GPU bandwidth on a typical Intel gaming PC or you end up saturating the DMI link making everything stutter. (Ryzen am4 is a bit better there, phew not all hope is lost).

There’s no drivers, there’s a little bit of cross vendor compatibility where e.g. Cisco switches refuse to work with non Cisco “coded” modules because of support licensing crap, but otherwise they just have a few pins and there’s a few bytes worth of memory on them where switch can read signal strength and temperature and that’s it. It’s more plug and play than plug-and-play ever was on computers.

Switches:

I’ll just list some examples:

Ubiquiti makes some interesting switches too, they support 802.1x and are better at POE, but you can put each port in its own vlan instead of 802.1x and you can get just a POE capable switch for cameras around the house and around the property.

Other stuff:

  • Conduits, why? You can direct bury a cable, but having a long flexible pipe where you can pull cable with a plastic bag and a vacuum cleaner is nice, don’t use PVC, use flexible “poly” which is not really polyurethane in most cases but all sorts of weird nice and durable polymer molecules, resistant to UV and degradation
  • twinax/dac/aoc… If you have SFP on two machines on a rack or at a short distance, instead of using fiber optics you can connect sfp-sfp and sfp±sfp+ using a direct-attach-cable, it works to 5m/10m… aoc is just a pair of optical transceivers and cable you can attach. You need to swap the cable when you want to upgrade speed.
  • microtrenching? turns out there are these giant chainsaw like things that dig narrow shallow trenches for cables and small diameter plumbing in no time for cables and stuff, see if you can rent/borrow or buy used.
  • oadm/mux/demux/cwdm/dwdm? fibers can carry multiple wavelengths, oadm are are various passive filters and prisms that help separate out/inject in a wavelengths. Mux/demux pretty much do the same. CWDM is coarse wave division multiplexing 16-20 waves per fiber dwdm goes up to 80/160/320. CWDM SFP modules that transmit/receive at different wavelength are not that much more expensive. DWDM modules are much more expensive, because they get to be temperature stabilized. This is useful if you want to play fiber ISP with your neighbors who might be a couple of hundred meters or up to 20km away, and have a small 10Gbps network between yourselves.
  • GPON? A whole different ballgame where you have many people sitting on one fiber sharing a pair of frequencies and all modules end up picking up downstream and discarding what’s not for them, and get synchronized to talk upstream and not overlap. It’s an ISP last mile thing, not a LAN/WAN tech you want to use yourself… unless to get internet from the ISP.
  • media converters? Small unmanaged box, fiber on one side, RJ45 on the other, they’re useful for end equipment only, most of the time you’ll be using a switch with an SFP/SFP+ port instead. At 1Gbps they cost about 20-30… Historically when fiber was more expensive, it used to make sense considering to get some fancy ones these days it’s the 20-30USD ones or get a cheap Ubiquiti 5 port switch or router with SFP for 50-100. For SFP+ you get a switch, for 40Gbps+ … Not yet at home, maybe in the future.
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Thank you. Time to study, plan, acquire.
For cables I have access to a Kubota with hole drill so I think will use that.