Kernel Security - What is coming and why is your Android phone still running kernel 3.10.x?

This is just a recommendation and a proposal to discussion. Mods, feel free do move thread if it fits in somewhere else.
I found this to be interesting and comprehensible, even to a n00b like me.

What security measures are implemented in newer kernels? (post last stable release)
How do kernel developers think about dealing with tomorrows bugs?
What is Transport over UDP and why is it a great idea for privacy?
Why is your Android phone running an old kernel? And why does it take forever to get security updates?

All this and more was discussed at the 2017 in Hobart, Tasmania.