MSI 7950, AMD FX 8350, Gigabyte UD5 990FX, 120GB Samsung 840 SSD, 1TB Seagate SV35.5 SSD, Seasonic G 550W PSU, and a 1080p Asus monitor (non-IPS) with a 2ms response time.
The 8350, with the Phanteks PH-TC12DX cooler, would overclock easily to 4.6gHz with reasonable temps, and look great while it's doing it ;)
The Gigabyte UD5 990FX is an extremely powerful motherboard for the price; it will handle any overclock you throw at it. It comes with 8 SATA 3 ports, and offers support for memory up to 2000mHz and 3-way SLI/Crossfire. Great, regardless of the price.
8GB (2x4GB) of G.SKILL Sniper 1866mHz CL9 memory; great looking, solid price, and plenty fast for anything reasonable.
The Samsung 840 is the best SSD out there for the money, pretty much. 120GB for $90 - you can't beat that.
The Seagate SV35.5 HDD is great - much better than the Barracuda drives, and faster than the WD Blues.
The Corsair 200R is just a great case for the price - if you want to get a better GPU, etc. in your budget, then the 200R will open up that opportunity.
Speaking of that GPU, the MSI Twin Frozr 7950 is going to rock that 1080p monitor. You can't get much better for the price/performance on high-end cards - quality materials, great looks, and solid cooler; it will handle a 1250mHz overclock on your GPU, if the chip can handle it.